Verses 1-3, The writer is now reintroducing the idea of Christ as a High Priest after the order of Melchizedek. Read Gen. 14:18-24 and Ps. 110:4. Notice that Melchizedek is similar to Christ in that he is a priest and a king, of righteousness and peace. Both are chief characteristics of the Messiah’s reign. See. Isa. 9:6-7; 32:17; 48:18; Zech. 6:13; Rom. 5:1; Col. 1:20.
Also it is important to note that Melchizedek was noted as a priest of the Most High God which is El Elyon. A name for God that had not yet been known by Abraham in Gen. 14 and signified God’s rule over all Creation. See. Dan. 4:32+35; Lk. 1:32+35 and Satan’s boast in Isa. 14:14.
Thus Melchizedek was made like unto the Son of God. What Christ is in reality, Melchizedek was apparently.
Verses 4-10, The writer says that by two things it was evident that Abraham saw Melchizedek as greater than himself: 1) The giving of tithes. 2) The receiving of a blessing.
Tithes belonged to God, and were given to the priests of the levitical order because they represented God to the people. So if Abraham(the father of all Israelites let alone levites) paid tithes to Melchizedek, Melchizedek was obviously a greater representative of God. Thus verses 9 and 10.
Also the greater would always give the blessing to the lesser, verse 7. How amazing was this man Melchizedek who blessed Abraham, the one who possessed God’s promises to all Israel!
In these two points we see the reason for the writers encouragement of verse 4, to consider how great this man was…
Verses 11-14, The writer warns the Jews not to return to the Levitical priesthood because it was obviously temporary. Why would God have promised another priesthood in Psalm 110:4 if the Levitical line was good enough? He wouldn’t have!
Verses 15-17, Christ was of Judah, not of Levi, so if He was to be a priest it had to be from another order. And that order was eternal because of God’s oath in Ps. 110:4.
Verses 18-19, So if God had a new order, with a new High Priest that would be eternal and unchanging, obviously the old order, law, and priests were done with. The law never made anyone righteous anyway! See. Gal. 3:11-12+21; Rom. 10:4.
There was no longer any religous “action” that needed to be accomplished to draw near to God. What an idea for any Jew!
Verses 20-22, Jesus’ position as High Priest came by an eternal oath, while the levitical line had no such foundation.
Verses 23-25, Human priests kept dying, but Christ will be there for His people forever! 1 Tim. 2:5.
There is now a man in heaven who is the Son of God, who works on our behalf! 1 John 2:1-2. This is wonderful news for any sinner who wants to draw near to God the Father!
Verses 26-28, Notice the contrasts:
1) Christ’s work is finished vs. Priests work was unending
2) Christ is our single Mediator vs. Many priests
3) One offering for all sin vs. Continual offerings
4) A holy and eternal Man vs. Sinful and dying men
5) The way to draw near to God is open to all vs. The way to God is closed
No wonder the writer felt he had to address the immaturity of his hearers before moving into the wonder truths of Christ being a High Priest after the order of Melchizedek!